As with most structures in Chinese , dates are listed from General to Specific.
Date and time in Chinese
The General format for dates and time in Mandarin is:. Putting that in Chinese grammar, it would be:. Another interesting thing about Chinese dates is that months and days are not named as they are in many Western languages.
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Instead they are simply numbered, with the number being followed by the unit of time. The year in Chinese is interesting in that it is both a noun and a measure word. This is significant because it does not require a measure word when counting. Because of this, giving the year and giving a number of years are differentiated in a particular way.
When specifying a number of years the exact number is given, followed by the word nian 2. No measure word should be used. When giving the year in a date, each digit should be read individually.
Useful Cantonese phrases
In English we would read as "nineteen ninety-nine" while in Chinese syntax it would be "one nine nine nine year". This is how you specify a number of years 5 years, years, etc.
kb.crosspoint.es/map65.php This is how you specify a year in a date , 23BC, etc. In Vietnam , Cantonese is the dominant language of the ethnic Chinese community, usually referred to as Hoa , which numbers about one million people and constitutes one of the largest minority groups in the country. Many speakers reflect their exposure to Vietnamese with a Vietnamese accent or a tendency to code-switch between Cantonese and Vietnamese. The dialect is also widely spoken as well in the town of Sekinchan in the district of Sabak Bernam located in the northern part of Selangor state and also in the state of Perak , especially in the state capital city of Ipoh and its surrounding towns of Gopeng , Batu Gajah and Kampar of the Kinta Valley region plus the towns of Tapah and Bidor in the southern part of the Perak state, and also widely spoken in the eastern Sabahan town of Sandakan as well as the towns of Kuantan , Raub , Bentong and Mentakab in Pahang state and they are also found in other areas such as Sarikei , Sarawak and Mersing , Johor.
Although Hokkien is the most spoken variety of Chinese and Mandarin is the medium of education at Chinese-language schools , Cantonese is largely influential in the local Chinese-language media and is used in commerce by Chinese Malaysians. Due to the popularity of Hong Kong popular culture , especially through drama series and popular music, Cantonese is widely understood by the Chinese in all parts of Malaysia, even though a large proportion of the Chinese Malaysian population is non-Cantonese.
Television networks in Malaysia regularly broadcast Hong Kong television programmes in their original Cantonese audio and soundtrack. Cantonese radio is also available in the nation and Cantonese is prevalent in locally produced Chinese television. Cantonese spoken in Malaysia often exhibits influences from Malay and other Chinese varieties spoken in the country, such as Hokkien and Teochew.
In Singapore , Mandarin is the official variety of the Chinese language used by the government, which has a Speak Mandarin Campaign SMC seeking to actively promote the use of Mandarin at the expense of other Chinese varieties. Despite the government's active promotion of SMC, the Cantonese-speaking Chinese community has had relative success in preserving its language from Mandarin compared to other dialect groups. Notably, all nationally produced non-Mandarin Chinese TV and radio programs were stopped after Cantonese drama series on terrestrial TV channels are instead dubbed in Mandarin and broadcast without the original Cantonese audio and soundtrack.
However, originals may be available through other sources such as cable television and online videos. Furthermore, an offshoot of SMC is the translation to Hanyu Pinyin of certain terms which originated from southern Chinese varieties.
Nevertheless, since the government restriction on media in non-Mandarin varieties was relaxed in the mids and s, the presence of Cantonese in Singapore has grown substantially. Forms of popular culture from Hong Kong, such as television series , cinema and pop music have become popular in Singaporean society, and non-dubbed original versions of the media became widely available.
Consequently, there has been a large number of non-Cantonese Chinese Singaporeans being able to understand or speak Cantonese to some varying extent, with a number of educational institutes offering Cantonese as an elective language course. Cantonese is widely used as the inter-communal language among Chinese Cambodians , especially in Phnom Penh and other urban areas. While Teochew speakers form the majority of the Chinese population in Cambodia , Cantonese is often used as a vernacular in commerce and with other Chinese variant groups in the nation.
Thailand is home to the largest overseas Chinese community in the world, numbering over 9 million individuals. Cantonese is the fourth most-spoken variety of Chinese in Thai Chinese households after Teochew , Hakka and Hainanese. Chinese-language schools in Thailand have also traditionally been conducted in Cantonese.
Furthermore, Cantonese serves as the lingua franca with other Chinese communities in the region. In Indonesia , Cantonese is locally known as Konghu and is one of the variants spoken by the Chinese Indonesian community, with speakers largely concentrated in major cities such as Jakarta , Surabaya and Batam. However, it has a relatively minor presence compared to other Southeast Asian nations, being the fourth most spoken Chinese variety after Hokkien, Hakka and Teochew. Chinese is the third most widely spoken non-English language in the United States when both Cantonese and Mandarin are combined, behind Spanish and French.
The majority of Chinese emigrants have traditionally originated from Guangdong and Guangxi, as well as Hong Kong and Macao beginning in the latter half of the 20th century and before the Handover and Southeast Asia, with Cantonese as their native language. However, more recent immigrants are arriving from the rest of mainland China and Taiwan and most often speak Standard Mandarin Putonghua as their native language,   although some may also speak their native local variety, such as Shanghainese , Hokkien , Fuzhounese , Hakka , etc.
As a result, Mandarin is becoming more common among the Chinese American community. The increase of Mandarin-speaking communities has resulted in the rise of separate neighborhoods or enclaves segregated by the primary Chinese variety spoken.
Phrases in Sinitic languages
Socioeconomic statuses are also a factor as well. The newly emerged Little Fuzhou eastern portion of Manhattan's Chinatown and Brooklyn's main large Chinatown in and around Sunset Park are mostly populated by Fuzhounese speakers , who often speak Mandarin as well. Flushing's large Chinatown , which now holds the crown as the largest Chinatown of the city, and Elmhurst's smaller Chinatown in Queens are very mixed, with large numbers of Mandarin speakers from many different parts of China and Taiwan.
They comprise the primary cultural center for New York City's Chinese population and are more middle class. In Northern California , especially in the San Francisco Bay Area , Cantonese has historically and continues to predominate in the Chinatowns of San Francisco and Oakland , as well as the surrounding suburbs and metropolitan area, although Mandarin is now [ when?
In contrast, Southern California hosts a much larger Mandarin-speaking population, with Cantonese found in more historical Chinese communities such as that of Chinatown, Los Angeles , and older Chinese ethnoburbs such as San Gabriel , Rosemead , and Temple City.
While a number of more-established Taiwanese immigrants have learned Cantonese to foster relations with the traditional Cantonese-speaking Chinese American population, more recent arrivals and the larger number of mainland Chinese immigrants have largely continued to use Mandarin as the exclusive variety of Chinese. This has led to a linguistic discrimination that has also contributed to social conflicts between the two sides, with a growing number of Chinese Americans including American-born Chinese of Cantonese background defending the historic Chinese-American culture against the impacts of increasing Mandarin-speaking new arrivals.
Cantonese is the most common Chinese variety spoken among Chinese Canadians. According to the Canada Census , there were , Canadian residents who reported Cantonese as their native language. As in the United States, the Chinese Canadian community traces its roots to early immigrants from Guangdong during the latter half of the 19th century. Chinese-speaking immigrants from conflict zones in Southeast Asia, especially Vietnam, arrived as well, beginning in the mids and were also largely Cantonese-speaking.
Unlike the United States, recent immigration from mainland China and Taiwan to Canada has been small, and Cantonese still remains the predominant Chinese variety in the country. The overwhelming majority of Chinese speakers in the United Kingdom use Cantonese, with about , British people claiming it as their first language. Among the Chinese community in France , Cantonese is spoken by immigrants who fled the former French Indochina Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos following the conflicts and communist takeovers in the region during the s.
While a slight majority of ethnic Chinese from Indochina speak Teochew at home, knowledge of Cantonese is prevalent due to its historic prestige status in the region and is used for commercial and community purposes between the different Chinese variety groups. As in the United States, there is a divide between Cantonese-speakers and those speaking other mainland Chinese varieties.
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Cantonese is spoken by ethnic Chinese in Portugal who originate from Macau, the most established Chinese community in the nation with a presence dating back to the 16th century and Portuguese colonialism. Since the lateth century, however, Mandarin- and Wu-speaking migrants from mainland China have outnumbered those from Macau, although Cantonese is still retained among mainstream Chinese community associations.
Cantonese has traditionally been the dominant Chinese language of the Chinese Australian community since the first ethnic Chinese settlers arrived in the s. It maintained this status until the mids, when a heavy increase in immigration from Mandarin-speakers largely from Mainland China led to Mandarin surpassing Cantonese as the dominant Chinese dialect spoken. Cantonese is the third most-spoken language in Australia. In the census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics listed , and , speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese, respectively.
During the Southern Song period, Guangzhou became the cultural center of the region. As Guangzhou became China's key commercial center for foreign trade and exchange in the s, Cantonese became the variety of Chinese interacting with most with the Western World. In Mainland China, Standard Chinese based on Mandarin has been heavily promoted as the medium of instruction in schools and as the official language, especially after the communist takeover in Meanwhile, Cantonese has remained the official variety of Chinese in Hong Kong and Macau, both during and after the colonial period.
Spoken Chinese has numerous regional and local varieties, many of which are mutually unintelligible. Most of these are rare outside their native areas, though they may be spoken outside of China. Many varieties also has Literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters for newer standard reading sounds. Since a Qing dynasty decree, China has promoted Mandarin for use in education, the media, and official communications. Nevertheless, there have been recent attempts to minimize the use of Cantonese in China. The most notable has been the proposal that Guangzhou Television increase its broadcast in Mandarin at the expense of Cantonese programs.
This however led to protests in Guangzhou , which eventually dissuaded authorities from going forward with the proposal. Due to the linguistic history of Hong Kong and Macau , and the use of Cantonese in many established overseas Chinese communities, diaspora speakers of Cantonese is numerous compared to speakers residing in China. Cantonese is the predominant Chinese variety spoken in Hong Kong and Macau. In these areas, public discourse takes place almost exclusively in Cantonese, making it the only variety of Chinese other than Mandarin to be used as an official language in the world.
Because of their dominance in Chinese diaspora overseas, standard Cantonese and its dialect Taishanese are among the most common Chinese languages that one may encounter in the West. Increasingly since the Handover , Cantonese has been used as a symbol of local identity in Hong Kong, largely through the development of democracy in the territory and desinicization practices to emphasise a separate Hong Kong identity.
A similar identity issue exists in the United States, where conflicts have arisen among Chinese-speakers due to a large recent influx of Mandarin-speakers. While older Taiwanese immigrants have learned Cantonese to foster integration within the traditional Chinese American populations, more recent arrivals from the Mainland continue to use Mandarin exclusively.
This has contributed to a segregation of communities based on linguistic cleavage. In particular, some Chinese Americans including American-born Chinese of Cantonese background emphasise their non-Mainland origins e. Hong Kong, Macau, Vietnam, etc. Along with Mandarin and Hokkien , Cantonese has its own popular music, Cantopop , which is the predominant genre in Hong Kong.
Many artists from the Mainland and Taiwan have learned Cantonese to break into the market. The de facto standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Canton Guangzhou , which is described in the Cantonese phonology article. Hong Kong Cantonese has some minor variations in phonology, but is largely identical to standard Guangzhou Cantonese. In Hong Kong and Macau, certain phoneme pairs have merged. In Hong Kong, both words are pronounced as the latter. Unlike the above two differences, this merge is found alongside the standard pronunciation in Hong Kong rather than being replaced.
Educated speakers often stick to the standard pronunciation but can exemplify the merged pronunciation in casual speech. In contrast, less educated speakers pronounce the merge more frequently. Less prevalent, but still notable differences found among a number of Hong Kong speakers include:.